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diabetes insipidus
Diabetes insipidus (DI) is a disorder characterized by intense thirst and by the excretion of large amounts of urine (polyuria). In most cases, it's the result of the body not properly producing, storing or releasing a key hormone, but diabetes insipidus can also occur when the kidneys are unable to properly respond to that hormone. Rarely, diabetes insipidus can occur during pregnancy (gestational diabetes insipidus).
Symptoms may include:
  • extreme thirst
  • increased urination
  • unexplained fussiness or inconsolable crying (infants)
  • unusually wet diapers
  • fever
  • vomiting
  • diarrhea
  • dry skin with cool extremities
  • weight loss
Causes may depend on the type of diabetes insipidus that a person has:

  • central diabetes insipidus - cause is usually damage to the pituitary gland or hypothalamus, most commonly due to surgery, a tumor, illness, inflammation or a head injury.
  • nephrogenic diabetes insipidus - may occur when there is a defect in the kidneys tubules, the structures that cause water to be excreted or reabsorbed. The defect may be due to an genetic disorder or a chronic kidney disorder.
  • gestational diabetes insipidus - occurs only during pregnancy and when an enzyme made by the placenta and other tissue that allows the exchange of nutrients and waste products between a mother and her baby.
Treatment may include:
  • synthetic hormones
  • increased water intake
  • endocrinology

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