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Endometriosis is a condition where tissue similar to the lining of the uterus, which should only be located inside the uterus, is found in other places in the body.  Endometriosis lesions can be found anywhere in the pelvic cavity: on the ovaries, the fallopian tubes, and on the pelvic sidewall.  Other common sites include the uterosacral ligaments, the cul-de-sac, the Pouch of Douglas, and in the rectal-vaginal septum


Less common sites include caesarian-section scars, laparoscopy or laparotomy scars, on the bladder, bowel, intestines, colon, appendix, and rectum.


Symptoms may include:

  • Pelvic pain that may or may not correlate to the menstrual cycle.  For many women the pain may be quite severe, even debilitating
  • Pain in the lower back
  • Pain during ovulation
  • Pain during or after sexual intercourse
  • diarrhea or constipation (in particular in connection with menstruation)
  • abdominal bloating (again, in connection with menstruation)
  • heavy or irregular bleeding
  • fatigue
  • infertility
  • frozen pelvis - sometimes scar tissue and adhesions are formed that distort a woman’s internal anatomy, possibly fusing internal organs together

Causes may include:

  • menstrual fluid flows backward and carries bits of uterine tissue upward through the fallopian tubes into the pelvis instead of flowing downward toward the vagina
  • endometrial cells may move through the bloodstream or lymph channels
  • certain special types of cells found throughout the body may transform themselves into endometrial cells and then join together to form large deposits of endometrial tissue
  • faulty immune system

Choosing a treatment therefore comes down to the individual woman's needs, depending on her symptoms, age, and fertility wishes. Each woman should discuss treatment options with her physician so that they, together, can determine which long-term treatment plan is best for her individual needs. 

Treatment may include:

  • OB/GYN

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